Space has always been a matter of research for years now. It fascinates to elders as much as it does to kids, it just that elders turn their fascination into their passion and then profession. Basically, space is a zone that’s 100kms above the planet and is black in color due to lack of oxygen, which normally makes the sky appear blue. After years of research, things like stars, other planets, Asteroids, comets etc. Our solar system is a part of a galaxy called Milky Way and it is believed that there billions of galaxies in space. Space is a mystery that can never be solved completely, the deeper to get in to it the more lost you feel. To solve these mysteries to some extent, there are research organizations all over the world.
Here is a list of top ten space research organizations in the World:
10. Canadian Space Agency (Canada)
CSA was formed under Canadian Space Agency Act and got Royal Ascent on 10th May, 1990. The agency is liable to report to Minister of Innovation, Science and Economic Development. Presently, Sylvain Laporte is the president of the agency since 27th February, 2015.
The space programs in Canada started towards the end of World War II. They use to undertake their projects at Canadian Defense Research Telecommunications Establishments. In 1962, Canada launched Alouette 1 and became the 3rd country to have artificial satellite in space. After the success of Alouette1, it initiated further research and with launch of Anik A-1, Canada became the 1st country to have its own satellite for geostationary communication. All these activities compelled the government of Canada to propagate the act and form the agency. It has its headquarters in Quebec and an annual budget of $483 million. Some of its satellites include ISIS 1 & 2, Hermes, RADARSAT-1, MOST, Sapphire etc.
9. Indian Space Research Organization (India)
Often called as ISRO, it is a space agency of government of India and headquarters are situated in Bangalore. The vision of the organization is “harness space technology for national development”, while pursuing planetary exploration and research of space science.
The organization was established in 1969 and superseded Indian National Committee for Space Research, which was formed in 1962. The Department of Space manages it and reports to Prime Minister of India. The 1st satellite built by the organization was Aryabhata and was launched on April 19th, 1975 by Soviet Union. The first satellite launched by Indian-made launcher was Rohini. The launching vehicles owned by the agency include SLV-3, PSLV and GSLV. The biggest success of the agency came with its Mars Orbiter Mission, in which the Mars Orbiter entered the orbit of Mars in the very first attempt, making India the 1st country to do so. The future projects include GSLV Mk III’s development, ULV, human spaceflight, development of launch vehicle that can be reused etc. It has record of launching 20 satellites in single payload, with one from Google.
8. China National Space Administration (China)
CNSA is a space agency of People’s Republic of China. The agency takes care of development and planning of space activities and space program.
The agency was formed in 1993 after the Ministry of Aerospace Industry was divided into China Aerospace Corporation (CASC) and CNSA. The policies were formulated by CNSA and were executed by CASC. The major projects of the agency include Tiangong 1, Chang’e 3 and Shenzhou 10. Presently, Xu Dazhe is the administrator, Wu Yanhua- vise administrator and Tian Yulong- Secretary General. CNSA has 4 departments under it which include Dept. of General Planning, Department of System Engineering, Dept. of Science, Technology and Quality Control and Dept. of Foreign Affairs. Its headquarters are in Beijing and has a budget of US$500 million.
7. Italian Space Agency (Italy)
The activities of space exploration in Italy are regulated, coordinated and funded by a government agency called Italian Space Agency. It was founded in 1988 and operates under Ministry of Education, Universities and Research.
The agency is responsible for blueprinting National Aerospace Plan and its execution. For this, it coordinates various assets and agencies like CIRA. It provides delegation to European Space Agency’s Council and subordinate bodies. The headquarters of the agency are in Rome and 3 operational centers which are under its control. Presently, Aldo Sandulli is the present and Fabrizio Tuzi its general manager. The major programs of the agency include Robotic Exploration, development of Launchers Observation of the Earth and Human spaceflight.it has a total of 200 workers and a budget of $1.8 billion.
6. German Aerospace Center (Germany)
Often called as DLR, is a center for energy, transportation and aerospace research of Federal Republic of Germany. The headquarters are in Cologne and has multiple locations all over Germany. It has several projects under national and international partnership for research and development. Apart from undertaking its own projects, it plans and implements programs for German federal government.
DLR was formed in 1997 after culmination of more than 6 aerospace, research and space institutes. The full form of DLR- Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt means “German Center for Aviation and Space Flight”. The mission of the center consists of exploration of solar system and earth and aims to protect environment and develop environment friendly technologies and promote communication, security and mobility. Its past and current missions include Prisma, Columbus, Automated Transfer Vehicle, AZUR, AEROS, HELIOS etc. The budget of the agency is estimated to be US$2 billion.
5. French Space Agency (France)
Center National d’études spatiales (CNES) or National Center for Space Studies is a space agency of French Government. It has to report to the French Ministries of Defense and Research and has its headquarters in Paris. It mainly operates from Guiana Space Center and Toulouse Space Center but it also launched payloads from centers of other countries.
It was founded in 1961 under the presidency of Charles de Gaulle. They were responsible to train the French astronauts until every single one was transferred to European Space Agency in the year 2001. One of its major projects needs it to work with Germany and other government and to start a research to propose a Launch Vehicle which is methane reusable. The objective of it is to reduce the cost and time it requires for refurbishment and if its built, the testing will not start before approx 2026.
4. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan)
Commonly known as JAXA, is an aerospace agency of Japan. It was formed after the merger of 3 independent organizations on 1st October, 2003. JAXA undertakes responsibilities like technology development, research and satellite launching and also some advanced missions like moon’s manned exploration and asteroid exploration.
The rockets used by the organization include H-IIA form the NASDA body and H-IIB, which was used in launching of satellite for engineering test, weather satellite etc. Another rocket, Epsilon is used for X-ray astronomy. In its earth observation project, it involves land observation, rainfall observation, Carbon Dioxide monitoring, observation of any Global change. The satellites currently used include EXOS-D- Aurora observation and GEOTAIL- magnetosphere observation satellite. It also has several ongoing joint projects with NASA like Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, Global Precipitation Measurement core satellite and the Aqua Earth observation satellite. It has list of future mission for coming years. the budget is estimated to be $2.17 billion.
3. European Space Agency (it includes numerous countries like Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Spain etc.)
European Space Agency—Photo via Wikipedia
European Space Agency is dedicated to the work of exploration of space and has 22 states as its members. It is an organization which is intergovernmental and has its headquarters in Paris with 2000 employees all over the world with an estimated budget of US$5.51 billion.
Earlier, scientists from Europe moved to United States to work there. Although after the boom in 1950s, they had enough funds and could invest in research of activities relating to research. They eventually decided to have 2 agencies ELDO and ESRO. The later launched, 7 satellites from 1968-1972 successfully. ESA was formed in 1975 when ELDO and ESRO were merged in to one. It has 10 states as its founding members including: United Kingdom, Belgium, France, Denmark, Italy, Germany, Spain, Netherlands, Switzerland and Sweden. The work of the organization is described in 2 overlapping ways: Activities and Programs. Activities include earth observation, Launchers, Navigation, operations, Space for climate etc and programs include Science core Technology Program, General Study Program, European Component Initiative etc.
2. Russian Federal Space Agency (Russia)
Also known as Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities or just Roscosmos is a responsible for aerospace research and space programs to be carried out for Russia. It is a governmental body and had a budget of $5.6 billion.
It was founded on 25th February, 1992 and was earlier known as Russian Aviation and Space Agency. The headquarters are situated in Moscow and its main research center is near Korolev city. The current programs of the corporation include earth science, scientific research and communication with satellite like Luna-Glob- Moon orbiters, Venera-D – Venus Lander and Fobos- Grunt- Mars mission. Presently, Igor Komarov is the Director since 2015 January. The budget is estimated to be $5.6 billion
1. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (United States)
Often abbreviated as NASA, is an executive part of United States Federal Government but is independent. It has the responsibility to carry out research on aerospace and aeronautics and space programs.
NASA was founded by Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1958 with civilian orientation. The National Aeronautics and Space Act deformed NASA’s predecessor, NACA and it new organization started its operations from 1st October, 1958. Since then, most of the space exploration projects of US are led by it. The projects include Apollo moon landing mission, space shuttle, skylab space station etc. Presently, it is supporting International Space Station and supervising the work of Orion Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle, Commercial Crew vehicles and Space Launched System. NASA mainly focuses on Earth Observing System, exploring bodies in solar system, research on astrophysics topics, heliophysics etc. It also shares data with other international and national organizations like from Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite. The estimated budget of NASA is US$17.8 billion.
Top 10 Space Research Organizations in the World
|Sr No.||Names of 10 Space Research Organizations|
|1||National Aeronautics and Space Administration (United States)|
|2||Russian Federal Space Agency (Russia)|
|3||European Space Agency|
|4||Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan)|
|5||French Space Agency (France)|
|6||German Aerospace Center (Germany)|
|7||Italian Space Agency (Italy)|
|8||China National Space Administration (China)|
|9||Indian Space Research Organization (India)|
|10||Canadian Space Agency (Canada)|
All the organizations mentioned above are brilliant and has the best scientists from around the world working for them. Getting in to such organizations itself needs high level of IQ and the work done is also unmatched.